2014 © Design by Insight Productions
For many World War II historians, this book can be surprising.
How would the military-oriented publishing world react to the release of never-before-seen details of the largest operation launched by the Third Reich against a country in the Americas?
Going one-step further, how would historians react to the revelation that the turning of the tide of WW II in favor of the Allies could be traced to an episode that is undocumented in military literature?
The German naval offensive against Brazilian ports and shipping lines is the central point of this work, which reveals the extent of Brazil’s involvement in WWII, including some notable episodes that occurred during the administration of Getúlio Vargas (1930-1945) during a critical period of conflict.
Operation Brazil reveals the true origin of the events that led Brazil to participate in the war, bringing to the light the unexplored details of military action that not only changed the destiny of that country, but also altered the unfolding of the conflict.
This story is the result of three years of intense research, carried out in some of the most important archives of Germany (Federal Archive - Bundesarchiv), Brazil (the Documentation Center of Navy, Army Historical Archives, the National Library Foundation and the Getúlio Vargas Foundation) and the United States (U.S. Army Center of Military History, Naval History & Heritage Command, U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, National Archives & Records Administration and Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and others).
Based on this research, numerous primary and official sources in Brazil and elsewhere were consulted, especially with regard to the plans prepared by the Kriegsmarine, including the War Diary of Commander-in-Chief of the Submarine Force, the War Diary of the German submarine U-507, the collective archives of the Brazilian Naval History, the History of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Air Force History, the "Green Books" of CHM - Center of Military History, the War Diaries of the U.S. Navy, and a substantial part of the diplomatic correspondence of the German and American embassies, then located in Rio de Janeiro.
In the biographical field, were consulted a series of memoires, biographies and personal diaries of some of the main protagonists of the conflict, including those of Roosevelt, Getúlio Vargas, Dutra, Goes Monteiro Aranha, Churchill, Dönitz, Admiral Ingram, Montgomery and Rommel.
This is the first book ever published that describes the largest attack planned by Nazi Germany against a nation of the Americas: Operation Brasilien. Yet, despite its magnitude and consequences, more than 70 years later, the origin of Brazil’s declaration of war against the Axis is still been described incorrectly by the most respected national and foreign sources.
Surprisingly, this research on this naval offensive against Brazil also enabled the discovery of some treasures, bringing to light capital events for Allied victory - unknown by military historiography. Captured almost intact after the war, the files of the German Navy were cross-referenced to the records of Allied Command, resulting in a high-quality literary production about the Battle of the Atlantic.
Understandably, the North American and European authors reconstituted, in detail, incidents that took place in the North and Central Atlantic, but only superficially touched upon the war as it unfolded in the South Atlantic. Thus, very little has been written about the naval operations of the Axis powers south of the equator.
Meanwhile, Brazilian literature has been rife with descriptions of that country’s shipping and passenger losses, and the combat actions of its own Navy and Air Force, but has lacked a multilateral approach to military operations, leaving a gap between the two thematic strands.
Operation Brazil aims to fill this gap, combining the strengths of the historiography of Brazil and other countries, and reconstructing a critical period of WW II, by means of an extremely rare narrative: military aggression against Brazil narrated simultaneously through the eyes of the Germans, Brazilians and Americans.
More than this. Discover how the course of monumental battle for the future of civilization surprisingly passed through the hands of a single man.
Note: Operation Brazil was written in Portuguese.
Suggest this work to a book publisher in your country.
1. The totalitarian threat
Background - Anauê! - The Head of nazi hydra - Aranha enters the scene - "Persona non grata" - Clash of nationalisms.
(Activities of the Nazi Party in Brazil in the 1930s and 1940s)
2. Uncertain alliance
The breakup - The lord of the sea - Wolf in sheep's clothing - Missed opportunities.
(The difficult political and military approach between Brazil and the U.S., with emphasis on the role of Roosevelt, Marshall and Admiral Jonas Ingram)
3. Chess war
Parnamirim Field - The secret agreement.
(The secret military agreement between Brazil and the U.S. and the role of Parnamirim Field: The "Trampoline to Victory")
4. The edge of the cliff
The plans - "What are you doing here? Get to the sea!” - The brazilian "Pearl Harbor" - Tropical apocalypse.
(Operation Brasilien Plans, U.S. plans to invade Brazil and its tragic consequences)
5. Lone wolf
The month of heartbreak - Terror on board - The U-507 in Salvador
(Reveals the true origin of the events that led Brazil to WWII)
6. Facts and myths
In the dock - In search of answers - "When I get back, I’ll deal with Pernambuco." - "We should have been better advised."
(Presents the evidence, based on the documents of the Nuremberg Trial, the U-507 War Diary, and Kriegsmarine official files)
"We swear to avenge this outrage!" - Metamorphosis
(Results of Brazilian declaration of war for the global geopolitical chessboard)
8. Treasure ship
Egypt on fire - "What can we do to help?" – “The ship the nazis had to get.”
(Reveals a previously unknown event of military historiography that was critical to the Allied victory in North Africa, the USSR and Asia)
9. The balance
"Send us more shermans" - Secrets of war - The last dive - undoubted errors.
(The fight of the Allies against the Afrika Korps, highlighting the role of Churchill, Montgomery and Rommel)
Excerpt of major foreign sources
ATKINSON, Rick. An Army at Dawn – The War in North Africa, 1942-1943. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2004.
BUCHANAN, Andrew. A Friend Indeed? From Tobruk to El Alamein: The American Contribution to Victory in the Desert. Diplomacy Et. Statecraft, 15:2, 279-301.
BUTLER, James. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series, The Mediterranean and Middle East ,Volume I, The Early Successes against Italy (to May 1941), Chapter X, Anxiety Over the Position in the Middle West.
CAREL, Paul. Afrika Korps. São Paulo: Flamboyant, 1967.
CONN, Stetson; FAIRCHILD, B. A Estrutura de Defesa do Hemisfério Ocidental. Rio de Janeiro: BIBLIEX, 2000.
CHURCHILL, W. S. Memoirs of the Second World War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.
___, The Hinge of Faith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Vol. IV, 1991.
CLAUSEWITZ, Carl Von. On War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
DAN, Van der Vat. Atlantic Campaign: The Great Struggle at Sea 1939-1945, 2001, Birlinn Publishers.
DÖNITZ, Karl. Memoirs, Ten Years and Twenty Days. Londres: Frontline Books, 2012.
Foreign Relations of the United States, Diplomatic Papers, 1942, Vol. V, The American Republics. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1962.
LIDDEL-HART H.B. The Rommel Papers. New York, Da Capo Press, 1953.
HAMMOND, Bryn. EL Alamein – The Battle that tuned the tide of the Second World War. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2012.
HILTON, Stanley. Oswaldo Aranha: uma biografia. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 1994.
Kasserine Pass. Battles. Readings, Vol. I, Part 1, U.S. Amy Center of Military History.
KEEGAN, John, The Second World War. New York: Penguin Books, 1990.
LEIGHTON, Richard M.; COAKLEY, Robert W. Global Logistics and Strategy 1940-1943. Washington, DC: Center of Military History US Army, Pub. 1-5, 1995.
MANSON, David. Submarinos Alemães- a arma oculta. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Renes Ltda, 1975.
MACKSEY, Kenneth. Afrika Korps – Rommel no Deserto. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Renes, 1974.
MCCANN, F.D. A Aliança Brasil-Estados Unidos, 1937-1945. Rio de Janeiro: BIBLIEX, 1995.
___, Negotiating Alliance in World War II, Brazil and United States 1938-1945, submitted draft, 16 Fev 2013.
NEWELL, Clayton R. Egypt-Libya, U.S. Army Campaign World War II, U.S. Army Center of Military History.
O III Reich e o Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Laudes, 1968.
MONTGOMERY, Bernard Law. Memórias do Marechal de Campo Visconde Montgomery de Alamein, K.G. São Paulo: IBRASA, 1960.
MOTTER, T.H. Vail. The Persian Corridor and The Aid to Russia. Washington, DC: Center of Military History U. Army, Pub. 8-1, 1952.
Nazi Conspiracy And Aggression Opinion and Judgment - Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality United States Government Printing Office, 1947.
PATERSON, Michael; PATERSON Mike, Battle for the Skies, David & Charles, 2004.
ROBERTS, Kent, Command Decisions, Greenfield Special Publications CMH Pub 70-7, Cloth; CMH Pub 70-7-1, Paper 1960, 2006.
ROSS, Steven. T. U.S. War Plans: 1938-1945. USA: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc., 2002.
ROSKILL, S.W. History of the Second World War – United Kingdom Military Series, War at Sea, Vol. II. Londres: HMSO, 1956.
ROWER, Jürgen. Operações Navais da Alemanha no Litoral do Brasil durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Revista Navigator: subsídios para a história marítima do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, nº 18, Jan- Dez 1982.
Sixth Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Operations, For The Period Ended, September, 11 1942. Fondren Library, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.
THOMSON, Harry C.; MAIO, Lida. The Technical Services - The Ordnance Department: Procurement and Supply , U.S. Army in World War II – CMH, Pub 10-10, Cloth 1960, 2003.
Trial of The Majors War Criminals Before The International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, Germany, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946, Vol. XIV, Proceedings, 16 Mai 1946 - 28 Mai 1946, Nuremberg, Germany, 1948.
U.S. Synthetic Rubber Program 1939-1945, A National Historic Chemical Landmark, Akron, Ohio, 29 Ago 1998.
WARDLOW, Chester. The Transportation Corps: Movements, Training, and Supply, Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1999, U.S. Army, Pub. 10-19.
____, The Transportation Corps: Responsibilities, Organizations and Operations. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 1999, U.S. Army, Pub. 10-20.
WEINBERG, Gerhard. A World at Arms, a Global History of World War II, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
WINCHESTER, James H. The Ship the Nazis Had to Get, The American Legion Magazine, August 1951.
WINTERBOTHAM, F.W. Enigma, o segredo de Hitler. Rio de Janeiro: BIBLIEX, 1978.
YOUNG, Desmond. Rommel, Rio de Janeiro: BIBLIEX, Artenova, 1975.
ZALOGA, Steven. Armored Thunderbolt: The U.S. Army Sherman in World War II. Mechanisburg: Stackpole Books, 2008.